AE Zones are areas that have a 1% probability of flooding every year (also known as the "100-year floodplain"), and where predicted flood water elevations above mean sea level have been established. Properties in Zone AE are considered to be at high risk of flooding under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Flood insurance is required for all properties in Zone AE that have federally-backed mortgages. Construction in these areas must meet local floodplain zoning ordinance requirements, including evidence that priniciple structures are above the Base Flood Elevation (BFE) as shown on the adopted FIRM maps.
Shaded X Zone
Shaded X zones are areas that have a 0.2% probability of flooding every year (also known as the "500-year floodplain"). Properties in Shaded Zone X are considered to be at moderate risk of flooding under the National Flood Insurance Program. Flood insurance is not required for properties in Zone X. Local floodplain zoning ordinances do not apply to Zone X.
The Special Flood Hazard Area extending from offshore to the inland limit of a primary frontal dune along an open coast, and any other area subject to high-velocity wave action from storms or seismic sources. Typically, this is the area where the computed wave heights for the base flood are 3 feet or more. V zones are subject to more stringent building requirements and different flood insurance rates than other zones shown on the FIRM because these areas have a higher level of risk than other areas.
Take a look at this video from FEMA which explains the process behind the evaluation of flood zones.
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